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ISO 2281 - Water Resistant Standards

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ISO 2281 - Water Resistant Standards Empty ISO 2281 - Water Resistant Standards

Post by andrema Tue 27 Sep 2011, 7:48 pm

Below are the "General ISO 2281 Water Resistant standards:

"Water Resistant" is a common mark stamped on the back of wrist watches to indicate how well a watch is sealed against ingress of water. It is usually accompanied by an indication of the static test pressure that a sample of newly manufactured watches was exposed to in a leakage test. The test pressure can be indicated either directly in bars, or (more commonly) as an equivalent water depth in meters (in the United States sometimes also in feet).

An indication of the test pressure in terms of water depth does not mean a water resistant watch was designed for repeated long term use in such water depths. For example, a water resistant watch marked at 30 meters depth cannot be expected to withstand activity for longer time periods in a swimming pool, let alone continue to function at 30 meters under water. This is because the test is conducted only once using static pressure on some of the newly manufactured watches.

The test for qualifying a diving watch for repeated usage in a given depth includes safety margins to take factors in account like aging of the seals, rapidly changing water pressure and temperature, as well as dynamic mechanical stresses encountered by a watch. Also every diving watch has to be fully tested for water resistance.

ISO 2281 water-resistant watches standard
The International Organization for Standardization issued a standard for water resistant watches which also prohibits the term waterproof to be used with watches, which many countries have adopted. The international standard ISO 2281 Horology – Water-resistant watches defines the water resistance of watches.

This standard was only designed for watches intended for ordinary daily use and are resistant to water during exercises such as swimming for a short period. They may be used under conditions where water pressure and temperature vary. However, whether they bear an additional indication of overpressure or not, they are not intended for submarine diving.

The ISO 2281 standard specifies a detailed testing procedure for each mark that defines not only pressures but also test duration, water temperature, and other parameters.

Besides this ISO 2859-2 Sampling plans indexed by limiting quality (LQ) for isolated lot inspection and ISO 2859-3 Sampling procedures for inspection by attributes – Part 3: Skip-lot sampling procedures concerning procedures regarding lot sampeling testing come into play, since not every single watch has to be tested for ISO 2281 approval.

ISO 2281 water resistance testing of a watch consists of:
*Resistance when immersed in water at a depth of 10 cm. Immersion of the watch in 10 cm of water for 1 hour.
Resistance of operative parts. Immersion of the watch in 10 cm of water with a force of 5 N perpendicular to the crown and pusher buttons (if any) for 10 minutes.

*Condensation test. The watch shall be placed on a heated plate at a temperature between 40 °C and 45 °C until the watch has reached the temperature of the heated plate (in practice, a heating time of 10 minutes to 20 minutes, depending on the type of watch, will be sufficient). A drop of water, at a temperature of 18 °C to 25 °C shall be placed on the glass of the watch. After about 1 minute, the glass shall be wiped with a dry rag. Any watch which has condensation on the interior surface of the glass shall be eliminated.

*Resistance to different temperatures. Immersion of the watch in 10 cm of water at the following temperatures for 5 minutes each, 40 °C, 20 °C and 40 °C again, with the transition between temperatures not to exceed 1 minute. No evidence of water intrusion or condensation is allowed.

*Resistance to water overpressure. Immersion of the watch in a suitable pressure vessel and subjecting it within 1 minute to the rated pressure for 10 minutes, or to 2 bar in case where no additional indication is given. Then the overpressure is reduced to the ambient pressure within 1 minute. No evidence of water intrusion or condensation is allowed.

*Resistance to air overpressure. Exposing the watch to an overpressure of 2 bar. The watch shall show no air-flow exceeding 50 μg/min.

-No magnetic or shock resistance properties are required.
-No negative pressure test is required.
-No strap attachment test is required.
-No corrosion test is required.
-Except the thermal shock resistance test all further ISO 2281 testing should be conducted at 18 °C to 25 °C temperature. Regarding pressure ISO 2281 defines: 1 bar = 105 Pa = 105 N/m2.

In practice, the survivability of the watch will depend not only on the water depth, but also on the age of the sealing material, past damage, temperature, and additional mechanical stresses.

None of the tests defined by ISO 2281 are suitable to qualify a watch as a diving watch. ISO 2281 compliant watches are designed for everyday life and must be water resistant during exercises such as swimming for a short period.

They can be worn in different temperature and pressure conditions, but are under no circumstances designed for diving with underwater breathing apparatus.


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